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Stronger anti-obesity effect of white ginseng over red ginseng and the potential mechanisms involving chemically structural/compositional specificity to gut microbiota.
Phytomedicine. 2020 Aug; 74:152761.P

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Ginseng has therapeutic potential for treating obesity and the associated gut microbiota dysbiosis. However, whether white ginseng and red ginseng, the two kinds of commonly used processed ginseng, possess different anti-obesity effects remains unknown.

PURPOSE

Anti-obesity effects of water extracts of white ginseng and red ginseng (WEWG and WERG) were compared, and the potential mechanisms were discussed.

METHODS

Chemical profiles of WEWG and WERG were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD). Anti-obesity effects of WEWG/WERG were examined by determining fat accumulation, systemic inflammation, enteric metabolic disorders and gut microbiota dysbiosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice.

RESULTS

Both WEWG and WERG exerted anti-obesity effects, with WEWG stronger than WERG. Compared to WERG, WEWG contained less contents of carbohydrates (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, free monosaccharides) and ginsenosides, but chemical structures or compositions of these components in WEWG were characteristic, i.e. narrower molecular weight distribution and higher molar ratios of glucose residues of polysaccharides; higher content ratios of oligosaccharides DP2-3 (di-/tri-saccharides)-to-oligosaccharides DP4-7 (tetra-/penta-/hexa-/hepta-saccharides), sucrose-to-melibiose, maltose-to-trehalose and high-polar-to-low-polar ginsenosides. WEWG better ameliorated fat accumulation, enteric metabolic disorders and gut microbiota dysbiosis in HFD-fed obese mice than WERG.

CONCLUSION

The stronger anti-obesity effect of white ginseng appears to correlate with differences in its chemical profile as compared to red ginseng. The carbohydrates and ginsenosides in WEWG potentially present more structural and compositional specificity to the obesity-associated gut bacteria, allowing more beneficial effects of WEWG on the gut microbiota dysbiosis. This consequently better alleviates the enteric metabolic disorders and systemic inflammation, thereby contributing to the stronger anti-obesity effect of WEWG as compared to WERG.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong; Department of Metabolomics, Jiangsu Province Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Jiangsu Branch of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: shanshan9280@126.com.School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong. Electronic address: aykathy@gmail.com.School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong. Electronic address: 15485315@life.hkbu.edu.hk.School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong. Electronic address: yrfjwzy@163.com.School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong. Electronic address: zzzhao@hkbu.edu.hk.Department of Metabolomics, Jiangsu Province Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Jiangsu Branch of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: nancymq@126.com.School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong. Electronic address: davidxujun@hkbu.edu.hk.School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong. Electronic address: hbchen@hkbu.edu.hk.Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Affiliated to Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China; Department of Metabolomics, Jiangsu Province Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Jiangsu Branch of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: songlinli64@126.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31005370

Citation

Zhou, Shan-Shan, et al. "Stronger Anti-obesity Effect of White Ginseng Over Red Ginseng and the Potential Mechanisms Involving Chemically Structural/compositional Specificity to Gut Microbiota." Phytomedicine : International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology, vol. 74, 2020, p. 152761.
Zhou SS, Auyeung KK, Yip KM, et al. Stronger anti-obesity effect of white ginseng over red ginseng and the potential mechanisms involving chemically structural/compositional specificity to gut microbiota. Phytomedicine. 2020;74:152761.
Zhou, S. S., Auyeung, K. K., Yip, K. M., Ye, R., Zhao, Z. Z., Mao, Q., Xu, J., Chen, H. B., & Li, S. L. (2020). Stronger anti-obesity effect of white ginseng over red ginseng and the potential mechanisms involving chemically structural/compositional specificity to gut microbiota. Phytomedicine : International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology, 74, 152761. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.11.021
Zhou SS, et al. Stronger Anti-obesity Effect of White Ginseng Over Red Ginseng and the Potential Mechanisms Involving Chemically Structural/compositional Specificity to Gut Microbiota. Phytomedicine. 2020;74:152761. PubMed PMID: 31005370.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Stronger anti-obesity effect of white ginseng over red ginseng and the potential mechanisms involving chemically structural/compositional specificity to gut microbiota. AU - Zhou,Shan-Shan, AU - Auyeung,Kathy Ka-Wai, AU - Yip,Ka-Man, AU - Ye,Rong, AU - Zhao,Zhong-Zhen, AU - Mao,Qian, AU - Xu,Jun, AU - Chen,Hu-Biao, AU - Li,Song-Lin, Y1 - 2018/11/19/ PY - 2018/09/19/received PY - 2018/11/14/revised PY - 2018/11/17/accepted PY - 2019/4/22/pubmed PY - 2020/8/25/medline PY - 2019/4/22/entrez KW - Anti-obesity KW - Enteric metabolic disorders KW - Gut microbiota KW - Red ginseng KW - Systemic inflammation KW - White ginseng SP - 152761 EP - 152761 JF - Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology JO - Phytomedicine VL - 74 N2 - BACKGROUND: Ginseng has therapeutic potential for treating obesity and the associated gut microbiota dysbiosis. However, whether white ginseng and red ginseng, the two kinds of commonly used processed ginseng, possess different anti-obesity effects remains unknown. PURPOSE: Anti-obesity effects of water extracts of white ginseng and red ginseng (WEWG and WERG) were compared, and the potential mechanisms were discussed. METHODS: Chemical profiles of WEWG and WERG were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD). Anti-obesity effects of WEWG/WERG were examined by determining fat accumulation, systemic inflammation, enteric metabolic disorders and gut microbiota dysbiosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. RESULTS: Both WEWG and WERG exerted anti-obesity effects, with WEWG stronger than WERG. Compared to WERG, WEWG contained less contents of carbohydrates (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, free monosaccharides) and ginsenosides, but chemical structures or compositions of these components in WEWG were characteristic, i.e. narrower molecular weight distribution and higher molar ratios of glucose residues of polysaccharides; higher content ratios of oligosaccharides DP2-3 (di-/tri-saccharides)-to-oligosaccharides DP4-7 (tetra-/penta-/hexa-/hepta-saccharides), sucrose-to-melibiose, maltose-to-trehalose and high-polar-to-low-polar ginsenosides. WEWG better ameliorated fat accumulation, enteric metabolic disorders and gut microbiota dysbiosis in HFD-fed obese mice than WERG. CONCLUSION: The stronger anti-obesity effect of white ginseng appears to correlate with differences in its chemical profile as compared to red ginseng. The carbohydrates and ginsenosides in WEWG potentially present more structural and compositional specificity to the obesity-associated gut bacteria, allowing more beneficial effects of WEWG on the gut microbiota dysbiosis. This consequently better alleviates the enteric metabolic disorders and systemic inflammation, thereby contributing to the stronger anti-obesity effect of WEWG as compared to WERG. SN - 1618-095X UR - https://neuro.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31005370/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -